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Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers


Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Fifth Edition

This manual is a workhorse: for over 15 years chemical engineers have reached for Rules of Thumb to answer their process engineering problems and to help them get on with the job.

The most complete guide of its kind, this is still the favored handbook for chemical and process engineers who need a reliable and authoritative solution to their practical on the job problems. Includes all new material on new processing sectors, including biopharmaceuticals. The text is comprehensively revised and updated with new data and formulas. Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers solves process design problems quickly, accurately and safely, with hundreds of common sense techniques, shortcuts and calculations. Stephen Hall took over authorship for the 5th Edition; the previous editions were written by Carl Branan who passed away several years ago.

Key features

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: Fluid Flow

Data Required … General Procedure … Recommended Velocity … Equivalent Length … Shortcut Equation for Pressure Drop Due to Friction … Reynolds number … Friction Factor … Incompressible Flow … Compressible Flow - Isothermal … Compressible Flow – Transmission Equations … Compressible Flow - Adiabatic … Visual Basic Subroutines for Pressure Drop Due to Friction … Orifices … Control Valves … Partially Full Horizontal Pipes … Two-Phase Flow

Chapter 2: Heat Exchangers

TEMA … Selection Guides … Design Recommendations … Process Data … Heat Exchanger Configuration and Area … Determining the LMTD Configuration Correction Factor … Tubeside Pressure Drop … Tube Side Film Coefficient … Shell Diameter … Ideal Shell Side Film Coefficient … Shell Side Film Coefficient Correction Factors … Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient … Shell Side Pressure Drop … Heat Transfer Coefficients … Fouling Resistances … Installation Recommendations … Thermal Conductivity of Metals … Vacuum Condensers … Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Forced vs. Induced Draft … Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Air Data … Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Thermal Design … Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Pressure Drop, Air Side … Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Temperature Control

Chapter 3: Fractionators

Separation Factor … Relative Volatility … Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium … Activity Coefficients … Establishing the Column Pressure … Minimum Reflux - Binary … Minimum Reflux - Multicomponent … Minimum Stages … Relationship of Theoretical Stages to Reflux Ratio … Feed Location … Reflux-to-Feed Ratio … Actual Trays … Graphical Methods – The McCabe-Thiele Diagram … Plotting With Murphree Tray Efficiency … Tray Efficiency Rules of Thumb … Using the McCabe-Thiele Plot … Column Internals – Trays and Packing … Column Tray Spacing … Tower Diameter – Souders-Brown Correlation … Pressure Drop – Trays … Control Schemes … Reboilers … Packed Columns

Chapter 4: Absorbers

Hydrocarbon Absorber Design … Inorganic Absorbers … Packing Height for Mass Transfer in Packed Columns … Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient

Chapter 5: Pumps

Pump Types and Selection … Pump Testing … System Curves … Operating Point and Pump Selection … Flow Control with Throttling Valve … Charting Control Characteristics … Flow Control by Changing the Pump Speed … Affinity Laws … Power … Minimum Flow … Temperature Rise … Suction System NPSH Available … Suction System NPSH for Studies … Multiple Centrifugal Pumps in Parallel or Series

Chapter 6: Fans, Blowers and Compressors

Rules of Thumb … Fans … Fan Noise … Blower Types … Compressor Types … Surge Control … Performance Calculations … Affinity Laws … Power – Fan … Power – Reciprocating Compressor … Power – Centrifugal Compressor … Comparison with Manufacturer’s Data … Power with P-E Diagram … Cost of Compressed Air … Receiver Volume … Time to Pump System to Pressure

Chapter 7: Drivers

Electric Motors … Motors: Efficiency … Motors: Starter Sizes … Motors: Service Factor … Motors: Useful Equations … Motors: Relative Costs … Motors: Overloading … Air-Driven Motors … Hydraulic Motors … Steam Turbines: Steam Rate … Steam Turbines: Efficiency … Gas Turbines: Fuel Rates … Gas Expanders: Available Energy … Internal Combustion Engines: Fuel Rates

Chapter 8: Vessels

General Rules of Thumb for Vessels … Tank Dimensions … Liquid Volume at Any Fill Height … Time to Drain a Tank … Emissions from Storage Tanks … Load Cells … Liquid-Liquid Separators … Vapor-Liquid Separators … Liquid Surge Volume … Vapor Velocity in the Disengagement Section … Vapor-Liquid Separator Size … Vessel Specifications … Good Engineering Practices for Storage Tank and Vent Relief Design

Chapter 9: Boilers

Boiler Horsepower … Types of Packaged Boilers … Power Plants … Controls … Thermal Efficiency … Stack Gas Enthalpy … Deaerator Venting … Water Alkalinity … Source Water Impurities … Conductivity Versus Dissolved Solids … Silica in Steam … Caustic Embrittlement … Waste Heat … Boiler Feedwater … Blowdown Control … Best Practices – Burner System Piping

Chapter 10: Cooling Towers

Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers … Material and Energy Balance Calculations … Rating Nomenclature … Performance Calculations … Operations and Accessories … Water Quality Guidelines … Scale Prevention

Chapter 11: Refrigeration

Specifications … Indirect and Direct System Design … Horsepower Per Ton … Refrigerants … Refrigerant Containment … Steam Jet Ejectors … Ammonia Absorption Utilities Requirements

Chapter 12: Closed Loop Heat Transfer Systems

Selecting the Heat Transfer Fluid … Types of Heat Transfer Fluids … Heat Transfer Coefficient … System Design … Temperature Control … Physical Properties of Commercial Heat Transfer Fluids

Chapter 13: Biopharmaceutical Systems

Facility Design and Sterilization Best Practices … Contamination Root Causes … Contamination Investigation and Recovery … Microbiology Investigation … Risk Assessment … Validation                 

Chapter 14: Vacuum Systems

Vacuum Units … Conversion Between Mass Flow, Actual Volume Flow, and Standard Volume Flow … Comparison of Vacuum Equipment … Vacuum Jets … Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps … Dry Vacuum Pumps … Typical Jet Systems … Steam Supply … Measuring Air Leakage … Time to Evacuate … Instrumentation and Controls

Chapter 15: Pneumatic Conveying

Flow Regimes … Types of Systems … System Design Procedure … Saltation Velocity … Pressure Drop … Prime Movers … Feed Systems … Conveyor Piping … Disengagement

Chapter 16: Blending and Agitation

Basics … Impeller Types … Dimensional Analysis … Blending … Solids Suspension … Gas Dispersion … In-Line Mixers … High Shear Mixers … Mixing Solids … Mechanical Design

Chapter 17: Process Evaluation

Accuracy of Cost Estimates … User Requirements … Block Diagrams … Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs) … Basis of Design … Block-Sequential Diagrams … Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) … Data Sheets and Specifications … Capital Cost Estimates … Engineering

Chapter 18: Reliability

Initial Design … "Risk Analysis" … Sustainable Practices    Risk Analysis

Chapter 19: Metallurgy

Cost Comparison … Embodied Energy … Embrittlement … Stress-Corrosion Cracking … Hydrogen Attack … Pitting Corrosion … Creep and Creep-Rupture Life … Naphthenic Acid Corrosion … Thermal Fatigue … Abrasive Wear … Pipeline Toughness … Common Corrosion Mistakes

Chapter 20: Safety

Process Safety Management (PSM) … Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) … Safe Design Practices … Emergency Vent Systems … Flash Point of Binary Mixtures … Deflagration Prevention or Control … Prevent Backflow … Equipment Purging … Electrical Area Classification … Causes for Loss of Containment … Dust Explosion Hazards

Chapter 21: Controls

Basic Nomenclature … Definitions of Control Modes … Cascade Control … Specifying Instruments to Measure Values … Control Ranges … Drawing Conventions … Artistic Expression … Safety Instrumented Systems … Enclosures: NEMA and IP

Chapter 22: Troubleshooting

General Troubleshooting Approach … Diagnostic Tools … Instruments … Control Valves (Process Control) … Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers … Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers … Fractionation Towers … Centrifugal Pumps … Compressors … Steam Jet Vacuum Systems … Refrigeration

Chapter 23: Startup

Startup Management … Change Control During Startup … Startup Cost … Systems Approach … Construction Quality … Startup Checklists … Operating Modes

Chapter 24: Energy Conservation

Calculating Steam Cost … Steam System Rules of Thumb … Equivalent Cost of Fuels … Steam Traps … Energy Efficient Design for Fractionators … Pinch Analysis … Insulation

Chapter 25: Process Modeling

Concepts and Terminology … Equipment Design … Mass and Energy Transfer … Flowsheet Simulation – Continuous Process … Flowsheet Simulation – Dynamic Process … Discrete Process Simulation … General Purpose Simulation Environments … Software List

Chapter 26: Conversion Factors and Constants

Significant Figures and Rounding … Gas Constant … Standard Gas Volume … Atmospheric Pressure … Irrigation Conversion

Chapter 27: Properties

Approximate Physical Properties … Vapor Pressure Equation … Liquid Viscosity … Relative Humidity … Surface Tension … Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam … Gas Diffusion Coefficients … Bulk Modulus … Water and Hydrocarbons … Compressibility Factor … Inorganic Gases in Petroleum … Foam Density … Equivalent Diameter

Hall, Stephen M., Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Fifth Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, 2012